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Postpositions

Usually serve to specify the spatial relationships between objects or their location in three-dimensional space.

May be divided into two large groups.

a) derived from lexical nominal parts of speech (may take case suffixes)

 

- mi in, within, inside -> mi the inner part of sth, the inside of sth

- waj ~ vyj under, underneath, beneath -> waj bottom, lowermost part

- tʰy ~ řxy above, over -> tʰyt roof

- kʰomi ~ xomi at the side, askance, aslant (location) -> kʰomi side, flank

- laxiŋk ~ laxe by, near, beside

- lef ~ lys past, by

- kutla ~ kutli outside, beyond

- xeřkŋ ~eřkŋ řk sideways, to the side (movement)

- tʰa ~řа before, prior to, until, till, by

- tʰaɣr ~ řаɣr between

- hyta ~ hyty ~ huty middle, center

- tʰařа ~ řаřа opposite, in front of, over against

- kiu ~ ɣiу against, over against, in opposition (to), contrary (to)

- at ~ yty before, prior to, until, till, by

- alvrk behind, at the back of

- ynk before, in front of, ahead of

Cardinal numerals for the numbers 1-5 are used like postpositions (followed by the noun and take case suffixes).

Tamlan-wо-näxr-tox vina... while walking toward one densely populated village… (tamdʲ to be numerous, -la- показатель постоянного качества, wо village, näxr one, -tox orientative suffix, vina adverbial participle from vidʲ walks, is walking)

b) derived from verbs (may not take case suffixes).

 

- ari ~ yri for sb/sth -> jarint ~ j’ridʲ to go/walk (somewhere) in order to find, bring or retrieve sb/sth

- iɣr like, as, similarly, in a similar manner -> jiɣrd ~ jiɣzdʲ imitates, mocks sb/sth

- las ~ lys past, by -> lyzid walks/goes past, by

- lyɣi without -> lyɣydʲ does not have sth, is deprived of sth, lacks sth

- anx ~ anki ~ ankyfk before, prior to -> jankint  to forestall, outrun, outpace, leave behind, to do sth earlier

- lakv around, about -> lakvdʲ to surround, encircle, enclose

 - taɣvgo around, about -> taɣvdʲ to coil, twine, twirl (around), to entwine

- oskoŋg~ osko through, over, across (a flat expanse) -> joskodʲ to cross a river

- tulku ~ rulku through, across (a thicket) -> tulkudʲ ~ rulkudʲ to crawl through

- tʰajgusk do without sb’s knowledge -> tʰajgunt not to know, to be unaware (of)

- tʰxa ~řxa up to, as far as (horizontal) -> erxadʲ to go/walk toward sth, in the direction of sth

- tʰxaka ~řхаkа up to, as far as (vertical) -> řxakant reaches (as far as) sth

 - tʰyky ~ řyky up to, as far as (horizontal and vertical)

- ŋar for sb/sth -> ŋand to go/walk (somewhere) in order to find, bring or retrieve sb/sth

- xavr without -> kʰаudʲ to be absent, to not be present, to be lacking

- pʰidʲ ~ fidʲ and hunvd to dwell, abide, reside, be, be located, be situated (somewhere) may also be used as postpostions, in which case they mean “in, within, inside sth”

The relationships between the words are often determined by their order and the position of the nominal parts of speech in the utterance.

Tu vo lyly čʰoland uiɣind there are no extremely poor people in this village

tu (without a relational suffix) in this, vo “village” (abs. – answers the question “where? in what place?” and denotes the location), lyly very, extremely, čʰoland to be poor (name of an action in the singular form with a plural meaning), uiɣind (there are) no, none (predicate in the singular form with a plural meaning))

Articles

The category is not fully formed.

The demonstrative pronoun aud ~ eɣd ~ ad’  ″this (one)″ is currently exhibiting a tendency toward being transformed into a definite article, where ant ~ ent may have been the initial form. The root  a ~ e carries a demonstrative meaning. Incorporated by specific nouns as a prepositional article: а-dyf ″тот дом″, а-dyf-tox vija! ″к тому дому иди!″.

The numeral nin ~ nenŋ functions as an indefinite article and precedes the noun, as per the general rule for numerals. Its simultaneous use as a quantitative marker and a marker of the object’s class would have been superfluous, pleonastic, therefore it can be considered a postpositive article or an indefinite postposition.

řаŋk nenŋ potürdlo pʰŋаɣrа xerr itnt one beautiful young woman said

xoj nän xur... (someone) killed one Goy/some person named Goy

In the Amur dialect there are some examples of using the numeral "one" as an indefinite article in front of a noun:

nin nivx tonrerk-pira, nin nivx anŋerk-pira — hogut naGrkir lyvlyvutad one man situated behind the head, one man situated behind the rear – so they beat at the bear with the animal skin

 

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